|Position:||Academic strategic lead, Clinical practice|
Dr Cunningham is the Academic Strategic Lead for Clinical Practice at the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.
Dr Cunningham has line management and budgetary responsibility for in excess of 18 FTE staff. He also has responsibility for professional and academic oversight of the development and delivery of the following courses; MPharm, MSc Clinical Pharmacy Practice, MSc Clinical Pharmacy Service Development and the Pharmacist Independent Prescribing course.
At a national level Dr Cunningham sits on a number of National Groups addressing Pharmacy Education issues, is an External Examiner at a number of institutions and is past Chair of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society Faculty Accreditation Panel. Internationally he has links with higher education and healthcare providers in a number of countries developing and delivering collaborative projects related to research and course delivery including: Hong Kong, Malaysia, Ghana, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Oman and Qatar.
Dr Cunningham has a particular interest in the development of further international links for research and course delivery.
Duties and Responsibilities
- Academic Strategic Lead for Clinical Practice
- RGU Teaching Fellow (merit related titular award)
- Convenor of RGU Validations and Internal Reviews
To fulfil the roles above Dr Cunningham is a member of various school committees/groups including:
- School Senior Team
- School Research Committee
- School Academic Board
- Postgraduate Pharmacy Programmes Management Team
- MPharm Course Management Team
- Inter-professional Learning Strategy Board
- Fitness to Practice Oversight Board
- BSc (Hons) in Pharmacy, Strathclyde University 1989
- PgDip in Clinical Pharmacy, RGU 1994
- PhD, RGU 2001
Dr Cunningham is an active researcher with research interests spanning many aspects of pharmacy practice and education. He has supervised numerous undergraduate and masters level projects and has seen four PhD students to completion. He currently has a number of PhD students as Principal Supervisor and second supervisor. Current areas of interest for PhD projects / research collaboration include:
Pharmacy practice within sustainable models of Integrated multidisciplinary care
- Independent prescribing and pharmaceutical care, encompassing models targeting specific populations and conditions to generic models across care settings. Research focuses on aspects of structures, processes and outcomes. Examples include multi-morbid, older people; those residing in remote and rural areas; and characteristics of effective and efficient workforce planning and utilisation including eProfessionalism.
- Inter-professional learning, ensuring undergraduate and postgraduate inter-professional learning develops healthcare professionals aware of their own specific role(s) and have a collaborative model of practice underpinned by shared values. Research focuses on the design, development and delivery of more effective undergraduate and postgraduate inter-professional learning programmes.
- Self-care, understanding behaviours, models and outcomes of self-care in general and in targeted specific diverse populations such as homeless individuals and those working offshore.
Medicines use, effectiveness and safety
- Specific populations, focusing on those with particular medicines related needs such as older people, those with multi-morbidities at risk of inappropriate polypharmacy, those receiving multi-compartment compliance aids
- Specific medicine groups and individual medicines, concentrating on medicines introduced recently to clinical practice, medicines highlighted as being issues of national concern such as antimicrobials, under-researched areas such as dermatological products and complementary and alternative medicines.
- Specific processes and procedures relating to the safe and effective use of medicines. This includes the spectrum of patient safety, medication errors pharmacovigilance, access to medicines, medicines information, adherence and burden, eHealth, medication waste.
International collaborations in the areas above are welcomed.
Dr Cunningham is an active pharmacy practice researcher. Current areas for PhD projects / Research collaboration include:
- Reclassification of medicines
- Chronic Medication Services and prescribing
- International collaborations in pharmacy practice and education in particular the use of e-learning in developing countries
- Derek Stewart, Katie MacLure, Scott Cunningham, Liz Buist, Rebecca Jamieson, Thom Shaw, Gordon Rushworth. An evaluation of the contribution of mental health clinical pharmacist prescribers to the multidisciplinary team care of patients with anxiety and/or depression within primary care medical practices in NHS Highland. NHS Highlands, 2017, £6,000.
- Derek Stewart, Katie MacLure, Scott Cunningham, Anne Boyter, Gashala Akram. Community Pharmacy Scotland: investigating value as perceived and experienced by service users. Community Pharmacy Scotland, 2017, £50,000.
- Evaluating pharmacy teams in GP practices. Scottish Government, , £100,000 (2017) Project team: Derek Stewart, Katie MacLure, Scott Cunningham, Katie Gibson-Smith.
- Derek Stewart, Scott Cunningham, Katie MacLure, Clare Morrison, Dawn Tiernan, Yvonne MacRae, Findlay Hickey, Emer Friel, Evelyn Yoong. A mixed methods evaluation of the clinical pharmacist support services to dispensing medical practices in the North and West Highland Operational Unit and NHS Western Isles. NHS Highland and Western Isles, 2015, £5,000.
- Business Interaction: Albapharm & RGU: scoping workshop for collaborative working Scottish Funding Council Innovation Voucher Scheme. Awarded £4500 (July 2012) Project Team: Scott Cunningham, Alison Strath, Ken Russell, Bill Sutherland, Val Maehle
- Investigating prescribing by community pharmacists in Scotland, Community Pharmacy Scotland. Awarded £49,000 (2007-10).
Project team: Maxwell Dapar, Derek Stewart, Scott Cunningham, Dorothy McCaig, Lesley Diack
- Investigating reclassification of medicines from prescription only medicines to pharmacy medicines in Scotland, Community Pharmacy Scotland. Awarded £49,000 ( 2007-10). Project team: Vibhu Paudyal, Derek Stewart, Scott Cunningham, Denise Hansford
- Exploring and evaluating prescribing by pharmacists, NES. Award £300,000 (2007 -11) Project Team: Katie MacLure, Rhea Hatcher, Derek Stewart, Scott Cunningham, Dorothy McCaig, Lesley Diack
- Facilitating the implementation of the community pharmacy contract in Scotland through development of an E-learning / support network - CPD:Advantage, NHS Education for Scotland (Pharmacy). Awarded £30, 000 (June 2008 – June 2009) Project Team: Scott Cunningham, Frances Notman, Lesley Diack, Terry Healey
- Knowledge Transfer: Developing community pharmacists' clinical skills for chronic disease management II in Scotland, NHS Education for Scotland (Pharmacy). Awarded £15, 000 (2010 – 11). Project team: Scott Cunningham, Alison Strath, Derek Stewart
- Knowledge Transfer: Further Development of the Scottish Vocational Pharmacist Training Scheme (SVPTS) towards an integrated Career Framework in Scotland, NHS Education for Scotland (Pharmacy). Awarded £15,000 (Mar 2010). Project team: Alison Strath, Scott Cunningham.
- General Pharmaceutical Council pharmacist registrant, since 2010
- Royal Pharmaceutical Society member, since 1990
- Royal Pharmaceutical Society Faculty Fellow (FFRPS), since 2014
- Member of NHS Education for Scotland Postgraduate Review Board, 2018
- Member of Scottish Government Five Year Integrated MPharm Working Groups, 2018
External / Professional Roles
- Current: Bath University, De Montford University
- Past: Bradford University, University College London, Keele University, Stirling University
Invited speaker at International Conferences
- European Association of Hospital Pharmacy, 2015, 2016, 2017
- HMC Collaborative Conference, Doha, Qatar, 2016
- Royal Hospital International Conference, Muscat, Oman, 2018
Dr Cunningham is a past member of the Scottish Government advisory group that lead to the Ritchie Report: Establishing Effective Therapeutic Partnerships - A generic framework to underpin the Chronic Medication Service element of the Community Pharmacy Contract and subsequently sat on the Scottish Government Chronic Medication Service Reference Group.
- Generalova D, Cunningham S, Leslie SJ, Rushworth G, McIver L, Stewart D. A systematic review of clinicians' views and experiences of direct-acting oral anticoagulants in the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2018; 84:2692–2703. doi:10.1111/bcp.13739
- Stewart D, Gibson-Smith K, Cunningham S, Pfleger S, Rushworth G. A qualitative study of the perspectives of older people in remote Scotland on accessibility to healthcare, medicines and medicines-taking. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2018;40:1300-1308.
- Jebara T, Cunningham S, MacLure K, Awaisu A, Pallivalapila A, Stewart D. Stakeholders' views and experiences of pharmacist prescribing: a systematic review. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2018;84:1883-1905. doi:10.1111/bcp.13624
- Stewart, D., Gibson Smith, K., Macleod, J., Strath, A., Paudyal, V., Forbes-Mckay, K., Cunningham, S., Maclure, K. (2018). The experiences and beliefs of older people in very sheltered housing about using multi-compartment compliance aids. International Journal Of Clinical Pharmacy. In Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11096-017-0580-X
- Rushworth Gf, Cunningham S, Pfleger S, Hall J, Stewart D. A cross-sectional survey of the access of older people in the Scottish Highlands to general medical practices, community pharmacies and prescription medicines. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2017; pii: S1551-7411 (16) 30400-4. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.01.002.
- Stewart D, Anthony B, Morrison C, Macrae Y, Dixon L, Friel E, Yoong E, Cunningham S, Maclure K. Evaluating pharmacist input into the pharmaceutical care of patients in dispensing medical practices in remote and rural areas of Scotland. Family Practice, 2017, Vol. 34, No. 4, 491–499 doi:10.1093/fampra/cmx014
- Stewart D, Jebara T, Cunningham S, Awaisu A, Pallivalapila A And Maclure K. Future perspectives on nonmedical prescribing. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety 2017, Vol. 8(6) 183–197. doi:10.1177/2042098617693546
- Maclure K, Macleod J, Forbes-Mckay K, Paudyal V, Cunningham S, Strath A, Lynch R, Stewart S. A case study investigation into the use of multi-compartment compliance aids in older people resident in very sheltered housing. Patient. 2016; 9 (6) :583-590. DOI 10.1007/s40271-016-0178-8. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40271-016-0178-8
- Mcintosh, T; Stewart, D; Forbes-Mckay, K; Mccaig, D; Cunningham, S. A systematic review of the influences on prescribing decision-making among non-medical prescribers in the United Kingdom. Family Practice 2016; 33 (6): 572-579. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmw085
- Fitzgerald N; Youngson E; Cunningham S; Watson M; Stewart D. Support for community pharmacy-based alcohol interventions: A Scottish general public survey. Public Health, 2015, 129: 1431- 1438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2015.07.005
- Hogan-Murphy D, Tonna A, Strath A, Cunningham S. Healthcare professionals' perceptions of the facilitators and barriers to implementing electronic systems for prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines in hospitals: a systematic review. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 2015. doi:10.1136/ejhpharm-2015-000722
- Paudyal V, Hansford D, Cunningham S, Stewart D. Exploring opportunities for providing pharmacists with feedback on their practice and performance around the electronic Minor Ailment Service in Scotland. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2014, 22 (5): 319-26. doi:10.1111/ijpp.12088
- Maclure K, Cunningham S, Diack L, Bond C, George J, Stewart D. Views of the Scottish general public on non-medical prescribing. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy: 2013, 35 (5): 704-710.
- Paudyal V, Hansford D, Cunningham S, Stewart D. Pharmacists' adoption into practice of newly reclassified medicines from diverse therapeutic areas in Scotland: A quantitative study of factors associated with decision-making. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 2014, 10(1):88-105. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.04.007
- Paudyal V, Hansford D, Cunningham S, Stewart D. Over the counter prescribing and pharmacists' adoption of new medicines: diffusion of innovations. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 2013, 9 (3): 251-262. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.05.001
- Rushworth Gf, Cunningham S, Mort A, Rudd I, Leslie Sj. Patient-specific factors relating to medication adherence in a post-percutaneous coronary intervention cohort International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2012, 20 (4): 226–237. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00185.x
- Paudyal V, Hansford D, Cunningham S, Stewart D. Community pharmacists' adoption of medicines reclassified from prescription only status: A systematic review of factors associated with decision making. 2012. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2012, 21: 396–406. doi:10.1002/pds.3219
- Weidmann Ae, Cunningham S, Gray G, Hansford D, Mclay J, Broom J, Stewart D. Views of the Scottish general public on community pharmacy weight management services: international implications. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 2012, 34(2):389-97. doi:10.1007/s11096-012-9624-4.
- Paudyal V, Hansford D, Cunningham S, Stewart D. Pharmacists' perceived integration into practice of over-the-counter simvastatin five years post reclassification. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2012, 34(5):733-8. DOI 10.1007/s11096-012-9668-5
- West L, Cunningham S, Cordina M. Clinical Pharmacist evaluation of medication inappropriateness in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Malta. Pharmacy Practice (Granada). 2012, 10(4): 181–187.
- Stewart D, Cunningham Its, Hansford D, John D, Mccaig D, Mclay J. General practitioners' views and experiences of over-the-counter simvastatin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2010, 70:3; 356-359. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03701.x
- Stewart D, George J, Cleland J, Bond C, Diack L, Mccaig D, Cunningham S, Maclure K. Developing and validating a tool for assessment of pharmacist prescribers' consultations. Family Practice 2010, 27(5):520-6. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmq034
- Paudyal V, Hansford D, Cunningham Its, Stewart D. Cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists' views of the electronic minor ailment system in Scotland. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2010, 18 (4):194-201. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7174.2010.00042.x
- Paudyal V, Hansford D, Cunningham S, Stewart D. Pharmacy assisted patient self-care of minor ailments: A chronological review of UK health policy documents and key events 1997–2010. Health Policy, 2010, 101 (3) 253-259. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2011.05.010
- Stewart Dc, George J, Bond Cm, Diack Lh, Mccaig Dj Cunningham Its. Views of pharmacist prescribers, doctors and patients on pharmacist prescribing implementation. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2009, 17:89-94. doi:10.1211/ijpp.17.02.0003
- Stewart Dc, George J, Diack Lh, Bond Cm, Mccaig Dj Cunningham Its, Munro K, Pfleger D. A cross sectional survey of the Scottish general public's awareness, views and attitudes to non-medical prescribing. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2009, 43:1115-1121. doi:10.1345/aph.1L609
- Edwards R & Cunningham Its. Achieving shared understanding of assessment criteria in reflection. In Bulpitt, H Deane, M., 2009. Connecting reflective learning, teaching and assessment. Occasional Paper 10. London: Higher Education Academy. Pp. 63-66.
- George J, Cleland J, Bond C, Mccaig D, Cunningham Its, Diack L, Stewart D. Views of pharmacists and mentors on experiential learning for pharmacist supplementary prescribing trainees. Pharmacy World and Science 2008, 30: 265-271. doi:10.1007/s/11096-007-9172-5
- Mccaig D, Hansford D, John D, Cunningham S, Stewart D. Reclassification of omeprazole: a survey of community pharmacists' views, attitudes and early experiences International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2008, 16: 23-28. doi:10.1211/ijpp.16.1.0005
- Stewart Dc, George J, Bond Cm, Cunningham Its, Diack Lh, Mccaig Dj. Exploring patients' perspectives of pharmacist supplementary prescribing in Scotland. Pharmacy World & Science 2008, 30:892-897. doi:10.1007/s/11096-008-9248X.
- George J, Mccaig D, Bond C, Cunningham S, Diack L, Stewart D. Benefits and challenges of prescribing training and implementation: perceptions and early experiences of RPSGB prescribers. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2007, 15: 23-30.
- George J, Bond C, Mccaig D, Cleland J, Cunningham S, Diack L, Stewart D. Experiential learning as part of pharmacist supplementary prescribing training: feedback from trainees and their mentors. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2007, 41: 1031-1038.
- Stewart D, George J, Pfleger D, Bond C, Diack L, Cunningham S, Mccaig D. Pharmacist supplementary prescribing training: a study of pharmacists' perceptions and planned participation. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2007, 15: 319-325.
- Stewart D, John D, Cunningham S, Mccaig D, Hansford D. A comparison of community pharmacists' views of over-the-counter omeprazole and simvastatin. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2007, 16: 1290-1297.
Teaching Learning and Assessment
Dr Cunningham teaches on a number of MPharm modules and has a particular interest in pharmaceutical care, research methods and research supervision. He is particularly interested in the development and implementation of novel approaches to OSCE provision and Team based Learning.
He regularly convenes internal course validation / internal review panels for RGU's Governance and Academic Quality department and act as an independent Senior Member of Staff on the Assessment Boards of other Schools within the University.
He has represented the School on the Robert Gordon University Postgraduate Professional Studies Programme and has been an independent senior staff member that sits on the Assessment Boards in other schools. He is currently the external examiner at a number of institutions.
Dr Cunningham has also represented the School, for two terms, on the University's Quality Assurance and Enhancement Committee, and has completed a term of office on Academic Council.
At an international level Dr Cunningham has visited a number of countries to discuss collaborative projects and for course delivery including: Hong Kong, Malaysia, Ghana, Serbia and Montenegro, Qatar and Oman. He has acted as Convenor for course validations at Benedict Schule, Switzerland.
He has a particular interest in the development of further international links for research and postgraduate study.