Cherry Wainwright
Title: Professor
First Name: Cherry
Surname: Wainwright
Position: Research Professor
Telephone: +44 (0) 1224 262450
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Cherry Wainwright is Professor of Cardiovascular Pharmacology.

Academic Background

Cherry has a BSc (Hons) degree in Pharmacology (University of Aberdeen; 1981), and a PhD in Cardiovascular Pharmacology (University of Strathclyde; 1984). Following a five year Janssen Foundation Research Lectureship at the University of Strathclyde she was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 1992 and Reader in 2001. In 2003 she took up the post of Research Professor of Pharmacology at RGU.

Research Interests

Prof. Wainwright's research focuses largely on the use of a wide range of cellular, in vitro and in vivo models of cardiovascular disease to explore how normal physiological mechanisms are altered in cardiovascular pathology, particularly in response to dietary influences. The aim is to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure.

Current Research

Current/Recent Projects:

  • Endocannabinoids and diet-induced cardiovascular disease.
  • The role of the orphan receptor GPR55 in metabolic control, obesity and cardiovascular function.
  • Zinc deficiency and myocardial tissue survival following infarction
  • Cardioprotective and anti-obesity properties of Natural Products

Current Collaborators:

  • Professor Hari Hundal, University of Dundee
  • Dr Sharon Mitchell, University of Aberdeen
  • Dr’s Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander & Erik Ryberg, Astra Zeneca, Sweden.
  • Professor Phil Whitfield, University of the Highlands & Islands
  • Professor Valérie Schini-Kerth, University of Strasbourg


  • Potential health benefits of natural extractives from UK hardwood trees.
    (Edinburgh, United Kingdom) 2016-04 to present - Award
  • Studies to determine the roles of cardiolipin and the LPI/GPR55 system in mediating obesity-induced cardiovascular co-morbidities.
    Tenovus Scotland (Edinburgh, United Kingdom)2013-12 to present - Grant

Professional Memberships

  • Fellow, British Pharmacological Society (FBPharmS)
  • Fellow, Higher Education Academy (FHEA)
  • Member of BSCR, ISHR and Scottish Cardiovascular Forum 

External / Professional Roles

Current External Roles:

  • 2015-Present: Chair, Academy of Finland Cellular and Molecular Biology Panel
  • 2016-Present: Board Member, Opportunity North East (ONE) Life Sciences Board
  • 2015-Present: Vice Chair, Tenovus Grampian Committee
  • 2016 - Present: Aurora Mentor and Role Model
  • 2016-Present: External Examiner, BSc Clinical Sciences (Cardiovascular Sciences), University of Leeds
  • Chair, Joint ICMAN/IUPHAR Natural Products Conference 2017.
  • Aberdeen Conference Ambassador



  1. Walsh SK, Hepburn CY, Keown O, Åstrand A, Lindblom A, Ryberg E, Hjorth S, Leslie SJ, Greasley PJ & Wainwright CL. Pharmacological profiling of the haemodynamic effects of cannabinoid ligands: A combined in vitro and in vivo approach. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2015; 3:e00143
  2. Walsh SK, Hector EE, Andreasson AC, Jonsson-Rylander AC, Wainwright CL. GPR55 deletion in mice leads to age-related ventricular dysfunction and impaired adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic responses. PLoS One 2014; 9: e108999.
  3. Curtis MJ, Hancox JC, Farkas A, Wainwright CL, Stables CL, Saint DA, et al. The Lambeth Conventions (II): guidelines for the study of animal and human ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Pharmacol Ther 2013; 139: 213-248.
  4. Dospinescu C, Widmer H, Rowe I, Wainwright C, Cruickshank SF. Hypoxia sensitivity of a voltage-gated potassium current in porcine intrapulmonary vein smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012; 303: L476-86.
  5. Markos F, Ruane O'Hora T, Wainwright CL, Noble MI. Dependence of smooth muscle tone upon pulsatility in the iliac artery of the anaesthetised pig. Pflugers Arch. 2012; 463: 679-684.
  6. McGrath JC, Drummond GB, McLachlan EM, Kilkenny C, Wainwright CL. Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals: the ARRIVE guidelines. Br J Pharmacol. 2010; 160: 1573-1576.
  7. Walsh SK, Hepburn CY, Kane KA, Wainwright CL. Acute administration of cannabidiol in vivo suppresses ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias and reduces infarct size when given at reperfusion. Br J Pharmacol. 2010; 160: 1234-1242.
  8. Hector EE, Robins, S, Mercer, DK, Brittenden, J, Wainwright, CL (2010). Quantitative measurement of mature collagen cross-links in human carotid artery plaques. Atherosclerosis, doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.03.028
  9. McDonald, R.A., Pyne, S., Pyne, N.J., Grant, A., Wainwright, C.L. & Wadsworth, R.M. (2010). The sphingosine kinase inhibitor N,N-dimethylsphingosine inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Br. J. Pharmacol. 159, 543-53  doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00533.x.
  10. Walsh, S.K., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2009). Mast cell degranulation--a mechanism for the anti-arrhythmic effect of endothelin-1? Br. J. Pharmacol. 157, 716-23, doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00222.x.
  11. Walsh, S.K., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2009). Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage? Auton. Autacoid Pharmacol. 29, 73-84, doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2009.00436.x.
  12. McDonald, R.A., Pyne, S., Pyne, N.J., Grant, A., Wainwright, C.L. & Wadsworth, R.M. (2009). The sphingosine kinase inhibitor N,N-dimethylsphingosine inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Br. J. Pharmacol. , doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00533.x.
  13. Wainwright, C.L., McGrath, J.C. (2009). Themed section: Advances in nutritional pharmacology. editorial. Br. J. Pharmacol. 158, 393-4, doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00457.x.
  14. Coats, P., Kennedy, S., Pyne, S., Wainwright, C.L. & Wadsworth, R.M. (2008). Inhibition of non-ras protein farnesylation reduces in-stent restenosis. Atherosclerosis. 197, 515-23, doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.06.007.
  15. Dever, G.J., Benson, R., Wainwright, C.L., Kennedy, S. & Spickett, C.M. (2008). Phospholipid chlorohydrin induces leukocyte adhesion to ApoE-/- mouse arteries via upregulation of P-selectin. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 44, 452-63, doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.10.038.
  16. Markos, F., Ruane-O'Hora, T., Snow, H.M., Kelly, R., Wainwright, C., Skene, K., Drake-Holland, A.J. & Noble, M.I. (2008). Dilatation in the femoral vascular bed does not cause retrograde relaxation of the iliac artery in the anaesthetized pig. Acta Physiol. (Oxf). 194, 207-13, doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2008.01882.x.
  17. Dever, G., Spickett, C.M., Kennedy, S., Rush, C., Tennant, G., Monopoli, A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2007). The nitric oxide-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1alpha(betaS*, deltaS*), 2alpha, 6alpha, 8beta-(R*), 8a alpha]]-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-beta, delta, 6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-8-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-1-naphtalene-heptanoic acid 4-(nitrooxy)butyl ester)], reduces splenocyte adhesion and reactive oxygen species generation in normal and atherosclerotic mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 320, 419-26, doi:10.1124/jpet.106.109298.
  18. Lim, S.Y., Wainwright, C.L., Kennedy, S. & Kane, K.A. (2007). Activation of protease activated receptor-2 induces delayed cardioprotection in anesthetized mice. Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. , doi:10.1007/s10557-007-6073-8.
  19. Burke, S.G., Wainwright, C.L., Vojnovic, I., Warner, T., Watson, D.G. & Furman, B.L. (2006). The effect of NCX4016 [2-acetoxy-benzoate 2-(2-nitroxymethyl)-phenyl ester] on the consequences of ischemia and reperfusion in the streptozotocin diabetic rat. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 316, 1107-14, doi:10.1124/jpet.105.096339.
  20. Dever, G., Wainwright, C.L., Kennedy, S. & Spickett, C.M. (2006). Fatty acid and phospholipid chlorohydrins cause cell stress and endothelial adhesion. Acta Biochim. Pol. 53, 761-8.
  21. Kennedy, S., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (2006). Locally administered antiproliferative drugs inhibit hypercontractility to serotonin in balloon-injured pig coronary artery. Vascul Pharmacol. 44, 363-71, doi:10.1016/j.vph.2006.01.012.
  22. Lim, S.Y., Tennant, G.M., Kennedy, S., Wainwright, C.L. & Kane, K.A. (2006). Activation of mouse protease-activated receptor-2 induces lymphocyte adhesion and generation of reactive oxygen species. Br. J. Pharmacol. 149, 591-9, doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706905.
  23. Looi, Y.H., Kane, K.A., McPhaden, A.R. & Wainwright, C.L. (2006). Adrenomedullin acts via nitric oxide and peroxynitrite to protect against myocardial ischaemia-induced arrhythmias in anaesthetized rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 148, 599-609, doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706771.
  24. Egan, C.G., Wainwright, C.L., Wadsworth, R.M. & Nixon, G.F. (2005). PDGF-induced signaling in proliferating and differentiated vascular smooth muscle: Effects of altered intracellular Ca2+ regulation. Cardiovasc. Res. 67, 308-16, doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.03.019.
  25. McCabe, C., Hicks, M.N., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2005). Electrophysiological and haemodynamic effects of endothelin ETA and ETB receptors in normal and ischaemic working rabbit hearts. Br. J. Pharmacol. 146, 118-28, doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706304.
  26. Miller, A.M., McPhaden, A.R., Preston, A., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (2005). TNFalpha increases the inflammatory response to vascular balloon injury without accelerating neointimal formation. Atherosclerosis. 179, 51-9, doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.10.019.
  27. Wainwright, C.L. (2005). Statins--is there no end to their usefulness? Cardiovasc. Res. 65, 296-8, doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.11.030.
  28. Wainwright, C.L., McCabe, C. & Kane, K.A. (2005). Endothelin and the ischaemic heart. Curr. Vasc. Pharmacol. 3, 333-41.
  29. Wainwright, C.L. (2004). Matrix metalloproteinases, oxidative stress and the acute response to acute myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 4, 132-8, doi:10.1016/j.coph.2004.01.001.
  30. Crockett, T.R., Gray, G.A., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2004). Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) reduces infarct size and preserves mRNA for the ETB receptor in the ischemic/reperfused myocardium of anesthetized rats. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 44, 148-54.
  31. Badr, K., Wainwright, C.L. (2004). Inflammation in the cardiovascular system: Here, there and everywhere. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 4, 107-9, doi:10.1016/j.coph.2004.01.004.
  32. Kennedy, S., Preston, A.A., McPhaden, A.R., Miller, A.M., Wainwright, C.L. & Wadsworth, R.M. (2004). Correlation of changes in nitric oxide synthase, superoxide dismutase and nitrotyrosine with endothelial regeneration and neointimal hyperplasia in the balloon-injured rabbit subclavian artery. Coron. Artery Dis. 15, 337-46.
  33. Kennedy, S., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (2003). Effect of antiproliferative agents on vascular function in normal and in vitro balloon-injured porcine coronary arteries. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 481, 101-7.
  34. Wainwright, C.L., Miller, A.M., Work, L.M. & Del Soldato, P. (2002). NCX4016 (NO-aspirin) reduces infarct size and suppresses arrhythmias following myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion in pigs. Br. J. Pharmacol. 135, 1882-8, doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704646.
  35. Crockett, T.R., Scott, G.A., McGowan, N.W., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2001). Anti-arrhythmic and electrophysiological effects of the endothelin receptor antagonists, BQ-123 and PD161721. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 432, 71-7.
  36. Kennedy, S., Miller, A.M., Wadsworth, R.M., McPhaden, A.R. & Wainwright, C.L. (2001). Validation of a technique to measure leukocyte adhesion to arterial segments: Effects of drug treatments. J. Immunol. Methods. 257, 203-11.
  37. Miller, A.M., McPhaden, A.R., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (2001). Inhibition by leukocyte depletion of neointima formation after balloon angioplasty in a rabbit model of restenosis. Cardiovasc. Res. 49, 838-50.
  38. Sharif, I., Crockett, T.R., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2001). The effects of endothelin-1 on ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias in rat isolated hearts. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 427, 235-42.
  39. Wainwright, C.L., Miller, A.M. & Wadsworth, R.M. (2001). Inflammation as a key event in the development of neointima following vascular balloon injury. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 28, 891-5.
  40. Work, L.M., McPhaden, A.R., Pyne, N.J., Pyne, S., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (2001). Short-term local delivery of an inhibitor of ras farnesyltransferase prevents neointima formation in vivo after porcine coronary balloon angioplasty. Circulation. 104, 1538-43.
  41. Crockett, T.R., Sharif, I., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (2000). Sarafotoxin 6c protects against ischaemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias in vivo and in vitro in the rat. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 36, S297-9.
  42. Kennedy, S., McPhaden, A.R., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (2000). Correlation of leukocyte adhesiveness, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte-induced contraction following balloon angioplasty. Br. J. Pharmacol. 130, 95-103, 10.1038/sj.bjp.0703282.
  43. Kennedy, S., Wadsworth, R.M., McPhaden, A.R. & Wainwright, C.L. (2000). A rapid, quantitative method for measuring leukocyte adhesion to normal and balloon-injured arteries in vitro. J. Immunol. Methods. 244, 153-62.
  44. Demiryurek, A.T., Cakici, I., Wainwright, C.L., Wadsworth, R.M. & Kane, K.A. (1998). Effects of free radical production and scavengers on occlusion-reperfusion induced arrhythmias. Pharmacol. Res. 38, 433-9, 10.1006/phrs.1998.0391.
  45. Chokkukannan, J., Zeitlin, I.J. & Wainwright, C.L. (1998). Modulation of endothelin-1 release by a transmissible factor from ischemic myocardium. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 31 Suppl 1, S427-30.
  46. Kennedy, S., Work, L., Ferris, P., Miller, A., McManus, B., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (1998). Role of nitric oxide and free radicals in the contractile response to non-preactivated leukocytes. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 345, 269-77.
  47. Sharif, I., Kane, K.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (1998). Endothelin and ischaemic arrhythmias-antiarrhythmic or arrhythmogenic? Cardiovasc. Res. 39, 625-32.
  48. Sun, W., Wainwright, C.L. (1997). The role of nitric oxide in modulating ischaemia-induced arrhythmias in rats. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 29, 554-62.
  49. Demiryurek, A.T., Kennedy, S., Wainwright, C.L., Wadsworth, R.M. & Kane, K.A. (1997). Influence of nitric oxide on luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence measured from porcine-stimulated leukocytes. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 30, 332-7.
  50. Greenlees, C., Wadsworth, R.M., Martorana, P.A. & Wainwright, C.L. (1997). The effects of L-arginine on neointimal formation and vascular function following balloon injury in heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Cardiovasc. Res. 35, 351-9.
  51. Wainwright, C.L., Kang, L. & Ross, S. (1997). Studies on the mechanism underlying the antifibrillatory effect of the A1-adenosine agonist, R-PIA, in rat isolated hearts. Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. 11, 669-78.
  52. Greenlees, C., Wainwright, C.L. & Wadsworth, R.M. (1996). Vasorelaxant and antiaggregatory properties of the endothelium: A comparative study in normocholesterolaemic and hereditary and dietary hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Br. J. Pharmacol. 119, 1470-6.
  53. Hadoke, P.W., Wadsworth, R.M., Wainwright, C.L., Butler, K.D. & Giddings, M.J. (1996). Subcutaneous infusion of r-hirudin does not inhibit neointimal proliferation after angioplasty of the subclavian artery in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Coron. Artery Dis. 7, 599-608.
  54. Hagerty, M.J., Wainwright, C.L. & Kane, K.A. (1996). The in-vivo cardiovascular effects of a putative class III anti-arrhythmic drug, AM 92016. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 48, 417-21.
  55. Piacentini, L., Wainwright, C.L. & Parratt, J.R. (1995). Effects of bordetella pertussis toxin pretreatment on the antiarrhythmic action of ischaemic preconditioning in anaesthetized rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 114, 755-60.
  56. Hadoke, P., Wainwright, C.L., Wadsworth, R.M., Butler, K. & Giddings, M.J. (1995). Characterization of the morphological and functional alterations in rabbit subclavian artery subjected to balloon angioplasty. Coron. Artery Dis. 6, 403-15.
  57. Garjani, A., Wainwright, C.L., Zeitlin, I.J., Wilson, C. & Slee, S.J. (1995). Effects of endothelin-1 and the ETA-receptor antagonist, BQ123, on ischemic arrhythmias in anesthetized rats. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 25, 634-42.
  58. Demiryurek, A.T., Wainwright, C.L., Wadsworth, R.M. & Kane, K.A. (1994). Characterization of a method for the detection of drugs with free radical scavenging activity using porcine leukocytes. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods. 32, 35-40.
  59. Sun, W., Wainwright, C.L. (1994). The potential antiarrhythmic effects of exogenous and endogenous bradykinin in the ischaemic rat heart in vivo. Coron. Artery Dis. 5, 541-50.
  60. Wainwright, C.L., Martorana, P.A. (1993). Pirsidomine, a novel nitric oxide donor, suppresses ischemic arrhythmias in anesthetized pigs. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 22 Suppl 7, S44-50.
  61. Piacentini, L., Wainwright, C.L. & Parratt, J.R. (1993). The antiarrhythmic effect of ischaemic preconditioning in isolated rat heart involves a pertussis toxin sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 674-80.
  62. Hadoke, P.W., Wadsworth, R.M. & Wainwright, C.L. (1993). Characterization of the responses of isolated rings of rabbit left carotid artery. A potential protocol for the assessment of pathologically induced functional changes. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods. 29, 195-202.
  63. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. (1993). Effects of R-PIA, a selective A1 adenosine agonist, on haemodynamics and ischaemic arrhythmias in pigs. Cardiovasc. Res. 27, 84-9.
  64. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. & Van Belle, H. (1993). The antiarrhythmic effects of the nucleoside transporter inhibitor, R75231, in anaesthetized pigs. Br. J. Pharmacol. 109, 592-9.
  65. Wainwright, C.L. (1992). Myocardial preconditioning as the heart's self-protecting response against the consequences of ischaemia. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 13, 90-3.
  66. Moshi, M.J., Zeitlin, I.J., Wainwright, C.L. & Parratt, J.R. (1992). Acid optimum kininogenases in canine myocardium and aorta. Cardiovasc. Res. 26, 367-70.
  67. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. (1991). Failure of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition to protect against arrhythmias induced by ischaemia and reperfusion: Implications for the role of prostaglandins as endogenous myocardial protective substances. Cardiovasc. Res. 25, 93-100.
  68. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. & Bigaud, M. (1989). The effects of PAF antagonists on arrhythmias and platelets during acute myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. Eur. Heart J. 10, 235-43.
  69. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. & Bigaud, M. (1988). The effects of PAF antagonists on ischaemia and reperfusion arrhythmias and ischaemia-induced platelet aggregation. Biomed. Biochim. Acta. 47, S224-7.
  70. Parratt, J.R., Wainwright, C.L., Coker, S.J. & Zeitlin, I.J. (1988). Eicosanoids and cardiac arrhythmias. Biomed. Biochim. Acta. 47, S13-8.
  71. Parratt, J.R., Wainwright, C.L. & Fagbemi, O. (1988). Effect of dopexamine hydrochloride in the early stages of experimental myocardial infarction and comparison with dopamine and dobutamine. Am. J. Cardiol. 62, 18C-23C.
  72. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. (1988). Alifedrine, a positive inotropic agent that moderately reduces the severity of ischaemia and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 147, 373-80.
  73. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. (1988). An antiarrhythmic effect of adenosine during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 145, 183-94.
  74. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. (1988). The effects of L655,240, a selective thromboxane and prostaglandin endoperoxide antagonist, on ischemia- and reperfusion-induced cardiac arrhythmias. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 12, 264-71.
  75. Parratt, J.R., Wainwright, C.L. (1987). Failure of allopurinol and a spin trapping agent N-t-butyl-alpha-phenyl nitrone to modify significantly ischaemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. Br. J. Pharmacol. 91, 49-59.
  76. Parratt, J.R., Coker, S.J. & Wainwright, C.L. (1987). Eicosanoids and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 19 Suppl 5, 55-66.
  77. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. (1987). Antiarrhythmic effects of the thromboxane antagonist BM 13.177. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 133, 257-64.
  78. Wainwright, C.L., Parratt, J.R. (1985). The effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockade and of thromboxane synthetase inhibition, alone and in combination, on arrhythmias resulting from myocardial ischemia. Adv. Myocardiol. 6, 573-84.
  79. Bullock, G.R., Lepran, I., Parratt, J.R., Szekeres, L. & Wainwright, C.L. (1985). Effects of a combination of metoprolol and dazmegrel on myocardial infarct size in rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 86, 235-40.
  80. Lepran, I., Parratt, J.R., Szekeres, L. & Wainwright, C.L. (1985). The effects of metoprolol and dazmegrel, alone and in combination, on arrhythmias induced by coronary artery occlusion in conscious rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 86, 229-34.